Fish oil pills, and other kinds of omega-3 supplements (which we’ll discuss below), offer a range of benefits, from lower inflammation to improved mental health. When deciding on the omega-3 supplement to take, however, there are a handful of factors to consider — dosage, the ratio of fats, the sourcing… it can be a headache. Some omega-3 pills may not even come from fish (which is why we’ve included three non-fish varieties in our list).
To help streamline your decision-making process, we’ve analyzed dozens of products to take the guesswork out of choosing an omega-3 supplement. Take a look at our picks below, which are currently sitting in the fridge at BarBend HQ — we tried them all.
Best Omega-3 Supplement Picks
- Best Omega-3 Supplement Overall: Transparent Labs Krill Oil
- Best Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplement: Legion Triton Fish Oil
- Best No-Burp Omega-3 Supplement: Performance Lab Omega 3
- Best Third-Party Tested Omega 3 Supplement: Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil
- Most Responsibly Sourced Omega-3 Supplement: Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil
- Best Omega-3 Supplement for Pescatarians: WHC UnoCardio x2
- Best Vegan Omega-3 Supplement: NuTru Vegan Omega-3
- Best Green Lipped Mussel Supplement: Swanson Green Lipped Mussel
Editor’s note: The content on BarBend is meant to be informative in nature, but it should not be taken as medical advice. The opinions and articles on this site are not intended for use as diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment of health problems. It’s’s always a good idea to talk to your doctor before beginning a new fitness, nutritional, and/or supplement routine. None of these supplements are meant to treat or cure any disease. If you feel you may be deficient in a particular nutrient or nutrients, please seek out a medical professional.
Best Omega-3 Supplement Overall
Krill oil contains natural preservatives and some unusual phospholipids you don’t find in fish oil, so some prefer to take it for their omega-3s.
Transparent Labs Krill Oil
Compared to fish oil, krill oil contains more phospholipids (molecules that regulate cellular processes) and astaxanthin, a natural antioxidant that helps protect the oil from oxidation. This particular krill oil is also tested to ensure there are no heavy metals in it. With those benefits comes a heftier price tag, though, and if you’re concerned about sustainability, this product is not certified.
Who Should Buy Transparent Labs Krill Oil
- Those who want extra antioxidants in their omega-3 supplement.
- Anyone concerned about the longevity of fish oil may prefer the fact that krill oil has natural preservatives.
- If you’re worried about heavy metals, you’ll be glad to know this is 100% free from them.
Who Shouldn’t Buy Transparent Labs Krill Oil
- Folks who only buy krill oil that’s certified for sustainability; there are no certifications on this product.
- Penny pinchers; krill oil supplements, including this one, tend to be pricier than fish oil.
Best Omega-3 Fish Oil Supplement
If you’re looking for a fish oil supplement that meets high purity standards, is sustainably sourced, transparent in sourcing, and goes down well, then you’re in luck.
Legion Triton Fish Oil
Each four-pill serving has 1,000 milligrams of EPA and DHA fats, and the purity level is very high. This supplement meets both EPRS and CRN standards for purity and is Friend of the Sea approved, so it’s sustainable. The additions of vitamin E and natural lemon oil also help to keep the product from going rancid.
Who Should Buy Legion Triton Fish Oil
- Customers who want a high dose of pure EPA and DHA fats.
- Folks who let their supplements sit for a while, as the vitamin E will help improve the shelf life.
Who Shouldn’t Buy Legion Triton Fish Oil
- The serving size is a bit on the large side — four capsules — so if you’re not good at swallowing pills, you might want to look elsewhere.
Best No-Burp Fish Oil Supplement
What goes down usually comes up. Anyone who has taken an omega-3 supplement, specifically a fish oil pill, has probably experienced those horrible fishy burps. They’re gross, and so we sought out the best burp-friendly omega-3 pill.
Performance Lab Omega-3
Performance Lab has sourced their omega-3 supplement from algae, which is often seen as a safer and more sustainable version of the common omega-3 supplement. Their supplement is also vegan-friendly and carageenan-free, which is highly uncommon (but often desired) in soft gel form.
Who Should Buy Performance Lab Omega-3
- People who are looking for an omega-3 supplement with a greatly reduced likelihood of unpleasant smells and burps.
- Customers who want to opt for a more sustainable source for omega-3 fatty acids.
Who Shouldn’t Buy Performance Lab Omega-3
- While we liked the nutritional profile of this supplement, it isn’t the most potent omega-3 supplement on the market per pill.
- People who want additional ingredients or nutrients in their fish oil pills may want to look elsewhere.
Best Third-Party Tested Omega-3 Supplement
To land on one of the purest of the pure, we balanced dosage, transparency, sourcing, and additives.
Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil
Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil, which offers 2.6 grams of omega-3s per serving, has the stamp of approval from a few prestigious organizations: The International Fish Oil Standards™ (IFOS) — which is measures purity and quality — the Marine Stewardship Council, the World Health Organization, the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s (GOED), and Consumerlabs. While it’s free from allergens like gluten, milk, peanut, shellfish, and soy, vegetarians and vegans should steer clear as the gelatin used in this product is meat-based.
Who Should Buy Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil
- Those who want as much omega-3 as possible; this has the most potent dosage we’ve seen. (Relative to the quality, anyway.)
- People concerned with sustainability; this is certified by IFOS and the Marine Stewardship Council and meets the standards of GOED and ConsumerLabs.
- Folks with allergies; this has been third-party verified to be free from gluten, milk, peanut, shellfish, and soy.
Who Shouldn’t Buy Nutrigold Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil
- Those who don’t eat beef; while it’s certified kosher, the capsules are nonetheless made with bovine gelatin.
Most Responsibly Sourced Omega-3 Supplement
The fish oil industry is worth hundreds of millions of dollars, emptying tons of fish out of oceans and farms. Many consumers rightfully have concerns about sustainability, and we think this is the best option.
Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil
Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil has certifications from the International Fish Oil Standards, the Marine Stewardship Council, and NSF International. This supplement is also tested to make sure there are no genetically modified organisms. And it’s remarkably fresh — the fish oil is extracted from pollock trimmings immediately after a catch. That freshness and all of those certifications bump up the price tag, and the pills are a little large (which is a minor detail, but one that’s important to some folks).
Who Should Buy Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil
- Those who value transparency; it’s certified by IFOS, Marine Stewardship Council, and NSF International.
- People who avoid farmed fish; this is from wild Alaskan pollock
Who Shouldn’t Buy Sports Research Triple Strength Omega-3 Fish Oil
- Folks who have issues swallowing large pills
- People who aren’t necessarily concerned about sustainability and therefore won’t want to pay more.
Best Omega-3 Supplement for Pescetarians
A lot of fish oil products — including our best overall pick — are encased in gelatin, and that gelatin is often made from beef or pork. If you abstain from certain animal products then this is a good option for you.
WHC UnoCardio x2
Instead of using the typical beef or pork gelatin, WHC opts for a fish casing, which is pescatarian-friendly. We also like that the single-softgel servings come in single packs for easy transport. That said, those same convenient packs may lead to excess litter. Also, this product, while approved by Labdoor and Friend of the Sea, is not IFOS-approved.
Who Should Buy WHC UnoCardio x2
- Pescetarians; the capsules are made from fish gelatin.
- Travelers; the softgel comes in easily transportable blister packs.
Who Shouldn’t Buy WHC UnoCardio x2
- If you’re concerned about waste, you may not love the blister packs.
- People who value IFOS ratings.
Best Vegan Omega-3 Supplement
Yes, you can get Omega-3s from plants, but the only way to get the important (and absorbable) EPA and DHA fatty acids are to go to the same source the fish get theirs: algae.
NuTru Vegan Omega-3
What makes this product stand out is that it’s vegan but also contains EPA and DHA, which is sourced from algae. Most vegan omega-3 pills don’t. The fact that it’s’s vegan also means there’s no risk of contamination from mercury, which is primarily found in fish. One downside is that this product contains only 450mg of omega-3s, which is on the lower end of the dosage scale.
Who Should Buy NuTru Vegan Omega-3
- Those who want a vegan omega-3 with both EPA and DHA; it’s remarkably rare
- Anyone concerned about mercury and heavy metals in animal-based omega-3s.
Who Shouldn’t Buy NuTru Vegan Omega-3
- Folks who want a higher dose of omega-3; there are only 450 milligrams per dose, which is more than most competing vegan products, but not as high as most fish oils.
Best Green Lipped Mussel Supplement
If you’ve spent hours combing the internet for the best omega-3 supplements, then there’s a good chance you’ve come across green lipped mussel. If you haven’t, it’s worth knowing about its potential advantages.
Swanson Green Lipped Mussel
Many prefer green lipped mussel oil because it’s’s seen as more sustainable and it usually contains a rare kind of omega-3 called eicosapentaenoic acid or ETA, which may help with inflammation(1). Swanson grinds up the animal, freeze-drys it on-site to preserve freshness, and then sends its supplement out to be third party tested and made in accordance with FDA and FTC guidelines. It’s important to note that Green Lipped Mussel does produce a strong smell and doesn’t quantify an actual omega-3 dose, which some may find, ahem, fishy.
Who Should Buy Swanson Green Lipped Mussel
- The extra omega-3 fatty acid ETA may alleviate inflammation.
- People who value third party testing of their supplements.
- Folks who are concerned about the freshness of their products; this is freeze-dried on-site for freshness.
Who Shouldn’t Buy Swanson Green Lipped Mussel
- Those who like to avoid “fishy” smells; this is made from ground-up mussels, and it smells like it.
- Folks looking for a huge dose of omega-3; the product only reveals the mussel content, not the grams of omega-3.
Why Take Omega-3 Supplements?
A wide variety of effects have been ascribed to omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here’s a break down of their core benefits.
Taking in plenty of EPA and DHA appears to be a way to help reduce inflammation. Some research suggests that fish oil supplements can be valuable for reducing joint pain associated with inflammatory conditions like arthritis. One study published in The Journal of the American College of Nutrition even found that fish oil supplements helped to reduce (though not eliminate) the need for anti-inflammatory drugs among people with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.(2)(3)
Managing inflammation isn’t just for people with chronic conditions, though. Chronic inflammation has been linked to everything from heart disease to diabetes to cancer, so reducing it where possible could be in everyone’s interest. Folks who work out regularly experience more inflammation than the average person and some research suggests that one to two grams of omega-3s per day helped to “counteract exercise-induced inflammation” following strength training.(4)(5)
[Related: Does the Ketogenic Diet Work for Strength Training?]
There’s decent evidence to suggest that keeping your omega-3 intake relatively high can help reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s’s disease and improve cognition among those already suffering from some forms of cognitive impairment.(6)(7)
Some contest these links — it’s a little less concrete than the anti-inflammation effects — but there’s even an argument to be made that the anti-inflammatory effects can play a role in treating depression.(8)(9) More research is needed, but fish oil, especially fish oil that’s made up of over 60% EPA, has been seen to reduce both depression and anxiety in some research.(10)(11)
Evidence is a little mixed, but a few studies have shown omega-3s (especially DHA) to reduce triglycerides (12)(13)(14)(15). Positive effects have also been seen in patients with high blood pressure, though it doesn’t seem to be as effective at lowering the pressure of folks with regular blood pressure.(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)
It’s equally as important to keep your omega-6 intake low as it is to keep your omega-3 up. While the latter is usually found in naturally raised fish and meat, the former is high in processed seed oils and fried foods, as well as more natural foods like chicken and nuts.
Of course, the average person eats more processed and fried foods than they should which means that the ratio of omega-3 to -6 is off balance. Research suggests that a 1:4 or even 1:2 ratio is ideal for reducing the risk of heart disease and some cancers, but the average person eats closer to 1:10 or even 1:25 in some studies.(21)
Unless your diet is very Paleo (which we mean to say natural) and loaded with fish, you should take omega-3 supplements and reduce your consumption of fried and processed food to improve your omega-3 to -6 ratio.
[Related: Should You Eat Fat After a Workout?]
How We Decided the Best Omega-3 Supplements
So how did we land on this list? Below are the criteria we used to make sure we’re landing on the cream (or oil) of the crop.
There’s no official recommended intake, but the World Health Organization and the US Department of Health and Human Services suggest a minimum of 250 to 500 milligrams of omega-3s per day. It’s important to note that many of these studies were using two to four grams per day to achieve their effects. Studies vary a lot in the dosages — one found that 14 grams of fish oil per day for five weeks helped improve some markers of inflammation among post-menopausal women.(22) But as mentioned, the closest thing to a recommendation we’ve got is 250 to 500 milligrams per day of a combination of EPA and DHA. Our favorite supplement delivered a solid 2.5 grams, but we didn’t penalize too harshly for lower amounts.
EPA is a little more closely linked with inflammation and DHA has a closer tie with mental health and they’re usually dosed equally, but we didn’t penalize if the dosages weren’t exactly the same. While some limited research suggests going heavier on EPA if you want to tamp down inflammation, we suggest determining your individual preferences when choosing an EPA and DHA balance.(23)
There are several third-party testers and regulatory bodies that can be employed by producers of omega-3 supplements.
The most popular is probably The International Fish Oil Standards™ (IFOSS), who awarded five stars to our Best Overall and Most Responsibly Sourced picks. The Ontario-based organization focuses on three main categories: the label accuracy or the number of active ingredients claimed on the label; the presence of contaminants like mercury and radiation, which they state can outweigh the beneficial health effects of fish oil; and stability, or how quickly the product is likely to degrade. IFOS is the only organization that tests fish oil products by batch and lot number to make sure they each have the right components, don’t contain contaminants, and are stable and fresh for consumption.
Another prominent organization is the Marine Stewardship Council, a global nonprofit organization that focuses on sustainability. The MSC works with fisheries, grocery stores, restaurants, and supplement companies to improve fishing practices, combat fraud, and promote transparency — in an effort to ensure that generations to come can enjoy seafood. Every fishery is independently assessed to figure out the impact on wild fish populations, and they also track the supply chain to make sure all of their certified fish oil can be traced back to an approved fishery.
Friend of the Sea also approved some of the supplements we looked at. Similarly to MSC, Friend of the Sea are focused on promoting sustainability; but they focus more broadly on fish oil supplements, and also shipping and cruise lines and whale watching companies. A project of the World Sustainability Organization, Friend of the Sea carries out yearly audits onsite by independent international certification bodies. Their requirements include waste and energy management, social accountability, no significant impact on the seabed, and not affecting animals deemed “overexploited” by the UN’s Food and Agricultural Organization.
Labdoor is another highly regarded company that emphasizes label accuracy. An approval from Labdoor is highly valued in all areas of nutritional supplements — the completely independent company purchases products off of retail shelves and online sites and then send samples to an FDA-registered laboratory for chemical analysis.
Particularly for the fish-based omega-3s, responsible sourcing can be a priority for some consumers. This is where the certifications from IFOSS, Marine Stewardship Council, and Friend of the Sea come into play.
Nobody wants rancid fish oil. Besides following the guidelines we outline below, we gave extra points to products that freeze their product soon after harvesting, which helps to maintain freshness.
We’re not of the mind that omega-3 supplements should have only omega-3s and nothing else at all. Some additives can be useful: rosemary or oregano extract, for instance, appears to help inhibit their oxidation.(24) Tocopherols also appear to help protect against contaminants.(25)
Therefore, we prefer fish oils with ingredients like these, water, and glycerin (to maintain the shape of the capsules).
[Looking to lose weight and gain muscle? Check out our calorie calculator to work out the rest of your diet]
Best Omega-3 Food Sources
Outside of fish, algae is another great source — and, excuse us if we’re wrong, we doubt you’re eating it by the bowlful. So, it’s back to fish. That said, not every type of fish has the same amount of omega-3s. Per one hundred grams, these are the animals that are highest in omega-3 according to Nutritiondata:
- Mackerel: 5,134 milligrams
- Salmon: 2,260 milligrams
- Anchovies: 2,113 milligrams
- Herring: 1,729 milligrams
- Sardines: 1,480 milligrams
- Oysters: 672 milligrams
- Halibut: 669 milligrams
Do Vegan Omega-3s Work?
Vegans will have a tougher time meeting their omega-3 requirements through food alone. Algae is really the only significant vegan source of EPA and DHA, which is why it’s the base of the vegan product we recommend. But all the other plant-based foods that are frequently touted as good sources of omega-3, such as chia, walnuts, and flaxseeds, are not.
Most vegan omega-3s are alpha-linolenic acid or ALA. The problem with ALA is that the body needs to convert it to EPA and DHA, and it’s’s estimated that about 90% of it is lost in the process.(26) Plus, if you’re eating a lot of omega-6 (as we tend to do), it appears to make it even harder for the body to make this conversion.(27)
Basically, you need to consume ten times the amount of ALA to get roughly the same amount of EPA and DHA. That said, really high amounts of ALA have been linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer.(28) It’s also been linked to lower risks of heart disease and diabetes, but doubling down on ALA might be an iffy strategy.(29)
Does Fish Oil Go Bad?
Fish oil expires. It’s animal fat, after all, and it can go rancid and lose its effectiveness. In fact, polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly prone to oxidative degeneration. According to a 2015 paper in the Journal of Nutritional Science, fish oil supplements are the most prone to degradation.(30) One study even looked at 171 supplements from 49 brands in Canada and found that 50% exceeded limits for at least one measure of oxidation.(31)
The risk of oxidation is affected by exposure to oxygen and light, temperature, antioxidant content, and the presence of water and heavy minerals. To minimize risks it’s’s smart to keep your fish oil in the fridge. The expiration date should be printed on your bottle, and while that date is meant to undershoot the expiration and take into account that many people might not store them well, it probably refers to when the gels will expire if left unopened.
Here some tips to help you keep your omega-3 supplements fresh:
- Buy them one month at a time so you’re not stockpiling older supplements.
- Once they’re open, start taking them every day.
- Check to ensure the oil is clear, not cloudy
- The coating should be springy, not soft
- If they smell bad, don’t take ‘them
What to Know Before You Buy Omega-3 Supplements
Before you click that ‘purchase’ button, it’s worth running through this quick checklist so you really know what you’re after.
Get the Right Dosage
As we’ve mentioned, there’s no official recommendation for how much omega-3 you should consume in a day, but most aim for at least a gram.
Consider the Rest of Your Diet
Research suggests that the efficacy of taking more omega-3 relies in part on your omega-6 intake, which is prevalent in processed oils, fried foods, and most plant fats. Try to eat more fat from wild-caught seafood, grass-fed beef, pastured chicken, coconut, chia, and olive oil.
Decide If Sustainability Matters
This isn’t to say that all uncertified fish oil is terrible for the planet, but if sustainability is a personal priority, look for one of the aforementioned certifications or choose sources such as krill oil and algae, which have less of an impact on the environment.
[Related: The 5 Best Men’s Multivitamins Reviewed in 2021]
Speak With a Physician
Before making any changes to your diet or supplement regimen, visit a doctor to find out if it’s the right move for you and what other measures you could and should be taking for your overall health.
It doesn’t matter if your priority is purity, the environment, or adhering to a plant-based diet, the best omega-3 supplements are on this list. We’ve done the hard work of weighing the countless competing supplements on the market — pick one of the best and enjoy. Just remember to keep ’em’em in the fridge.
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2. Maroon JC, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain. Surg Neurol. 2006 Apr;65(4):326-31.
3. Rajaei E, et al. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving DMARDs Therapy: Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Glob J Health Sci. 2015 Nov 3;8(7):18-25.
4. Jouris KB, et al. The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Inflammatory Response to eccentric strength exercise. J Sports Sci Med. 2011 Sep 1;10(3):432-8.
5. Shei RJ, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the optimization of physical performance. Mil Med. 2014 Nov;179(11 Suppl):144-56.
6. Mazereeuw G, et al. Effects of ω-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Jul;33(7):1482.e17-29.
7. Cederholm T, et al. ω-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cognitive decline in humans. Adv Nutr. 2013 Nov 6;4(6):672-6.
8. Sarris J, et al. Omega-3 for bipolar disorder: meta-analyses of use in mania and bipolar depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;73(1):81-6.
9. Grosso G, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and depression: scientific evidence and biological mechanisms. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:313570.
10. Sublette ME, et al. Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Dec;72(12):1577-84.
11. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, et al. Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Nov;25(8):1725-34.
12. Wei MY, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011 Dec;13(6):474-83.
13. Annuzzi G, et al. A controlled study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis. 1991 Mar;87(1):65-73.
14. Boberg M, et al. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Invest. 1992 Oct;22(10):645-50.
15. Davidson MH, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of adding prescription omega-3 fatty acids 4 g/d to simvastatin 40 mg/d in hypertriglyceridemic patients: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2007 Jul;29(7):1354-67.
16. Axelrod L, et al. Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled study. Diabetes Care. 1994 Jan;17(1):37-44.
17. Simão AN, et al. Blood pressure decrease with ingestion of a soya product (kinako) or fish oil in women with the metabolic syndrome: role of adiponectin and nitric oxide. Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 28;108(8):1435-42.
18. Russo GL. Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: from biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009 Mar 15;77(6):937-46.
19. Ramel A, et al. Moderate consumption of fatty fish reduces diastolic blood pressure in overweight and obese European young adults during energy restriction. Nutrition. 2010 Feb;26(2):168-74.
20. Campbell F, et al. A systematic review of fish-oil supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2013 Feb;20(1):107-20.
21. Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.
22. Ciubotaru I, et al. Dietary fish oil decreases C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRT. J Nutr Biochem. 2003 Sep;14(9):513-21.
23. Shang T, et al. Protective effects of various ratios of DHA/EPA supplementation on high-fat diet-induced liver damage in mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2017 Mar 29;16(1):65.
24. Bhale SD, et al. Oregano and rosemary extracts inhibit oxidation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in menhaden oil. J Food Sci. 2007 Nov;72(9):C504-8.
25. Søfteland L, et al. Omega-3 and alpha-tocopherol provide more protection against contaminants in novel feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) than omega-6 and gamma tocopherol. Toxicol Rep. 2016 Jan 14;3:211-224.
26. Davis BC, et al. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):640S-646S.
27. Gerster H. Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)? Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(3):159-73.
28. Brouwer IA, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22.
29. Mohammadi V, et al. Does Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation Modulate Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Stroke? A Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial. Int J Prev Med. 2018 Apr 5;9:34.
30. Cameron-Smith D, et al. Fishing for answers: is oxidation of fish oil supplements a problem? J Nutr Sci. 2015 Nov 23;4:e36.
31. Jackowski SA, et al. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety. J Nutr Sci. 2015 Nov 4;4:e30.